- Ardouin A.
- Jamaican émigré who died of PCP infection in Brooklyn in 1959.
Professor Peter Aaby
- Danish scientist and principal researcher into
HIV-2 in Guinea-Bissau.
- Professor Margaret Agerholm
- Oxford-based virologist who wrote to the BMJ
questioning the safety of the CHAT vaccine trials in the Congo.
- Professor Jan Albert
- virologist at the Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control.
- Professor Jennifer Alexander
- South African microbiologist and proponent of OPV/AIDS theory.
- Professor Steve Alexander
- scientist at Biotech Research Inc., Rockville, Maryland,
who developed a version of the Western blot assay.
- Professor Jonathan Allan
- microbiologist and SIV expert working at the Southwest
Foundation for Biomedical Research, San Antonio, Texas.
- Lawrence K. Altman
- medical writer for the New York Times.
Dr Armand André, former director of blood bank in Liege, Belgium,
who tested the bloods of 175 Lindi chimps in the fifties.
- Professor L. J. André
- former captain of the French colonial medical service based at
the Institute Pasteur in Brazzaville; vaccinated population around
Mitzic in Gabon with Lépine vaccine in 1957. Later, director of the
military institute of tropical medicine in Marseille.
- Stewart Aston
- former head of the virus and rickettsial vaccine production
laboratory, Lederle Laboratories.
- Professor Francoise Barré-Sinoussi
- virologist and AIDS specialist based at the Institut Pasteur,
- Professor Georges Barski
- tissue culture expert from Pierre Lepine’s virology
department at the Institut Pasteur in the early fifties; visited
Alexandre Jezierski in the Congo to collect blood samples for polio
- Professor Claudio Basilico
- microbiologist from the New York University School of
Medicine; co-chair of the expert committee convened by the Wistar Institute to
examine the OPV/AIDS theory.
- Dr Anne Bayley
- British doctor and former chief surgeon at the University Teaching
Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia.
- Dr Wilfrid Bervoets
- inspector of hygiene for the Congo at the time of the CHAT
- Dr Gunnel Biberfeld
- virologist from the National Bacteriological Laboratory in
Stockholm; specialist in HIV-2 research.
- Dr Bob Biggar
- conducted AIDS research (including some controversial
epidemiological studies) under Robert Gallo in the eighties.
- Dr Howard Binns
- director of the research institute at Muguga, Kenya, at the time of
Koprowski’s visits in 1955 and 1957.
- Professor David Bodian
- Polio researcher from Johns Hopkins University who
identified the three types of polio virus; later, conducted
poliovirus research in chimpanzees.
- Professor Margerete Böttiger
- Swedish virologist who assisted Sven Gard with
polio vaccine research at the Karolinska Institute in the fifties
- Jean Brakel
- A sanitary agent for the Laboratoire Médical de Stanleyville in the late
fifties and who assisted Gaston Ninane with the vaccinations in response to polio
epidemics in Kivu.
- Professor Paul Brutsaert
- Senior professor from the tropical institute, Antwerp,
Belgium who opened the virus symposium at Stanleyville, in September
- Professor Anthony Bryceson
- Physician at the London Hospital for Tropical
Diseases who treated Senhor L., the first known HIV-2 related
patient, in 1978.
- Dr Louis Bugyaki
- Hungarian vet who worked in Stanleyville between 1956 and
1959 and who helped look after the Lindi chimps.
- Dr Margerete Bundschuh
- German missionary doctor who worked in Tanzania for
over 30 years.
- Dr Fritz Buser
- Swiss pediatrician who helped conduct trials of various polio
vaccines, inluding Koprowski’s, in Berne in the fifties.
- Professor Victor Cabasso
- Lederle virologist who took over as Cox’s deputy after
Koprowski left in 1957.
- Dr Michele Carbone
- Italian scientist who linked SV40 and asbestos exposure to the
development of tumours such as mesothelioma.
- David Carr
- The ‘Manchester sailor’ who died in 1959 from an AIDS-like illness
characterised by PCP and CMV infections.
- Dr Wilson Carswell
- A Scottish surgeon who became a leading figure in the fight
against AIDS in Uganda.
- Hubert Caubergh
- Sanitary agent who participated in, and documented, the CHAT
vaccinations in Ruanda-Urundi between 1958 and 1960.
- Dr Francis Charlton
- Californian physician and father of a brain damaged child
(AAC) who was fed with a Koprowski polio vaccine in 1956 and whose
excreted virus was used as the basis for CHAT vaccine.
- Dr Robert Colebunders
- Belgian clinician from the Tropical Institute at Antwerp
who has conducted extensive AIDS research in the Congo.
- Steve Connor
- Science journalist who wrote exposé about the apparent David Carr
HIV-1 contamination for The Independent in 1995.
- Dr André Courtois
- Belgian physician, son of Ghislain Courtois.
- Dr Ghislain Courtois
- Belgian physician who headed the Laboratoire Médical de
Stanleyville throughout the fifties and who established Lindi Camp
in collaboration with Koprowski. Distributed OPV to different parts
of the Congo and Ruanda-Urundi, and later helped organise
vaccination campaigns with Sabin’s OPV in Belgium itself.
- Professor Herald Cox
- Head of viral and rickettsial research at Lederle Laboratories,
American Cyanamid, between the forties and sixties.
- John Crewdson
- Renowned Chicago Tribune journalist.
- Julian Cribb
- Australian scientific journalist and author of ‘The White Death’, the
first book to discuss the OPV/AIDS hypothesis in detail.
- Professor James Curran
- Effective head of the CDC’s AIDS program from 1981
(when it was known as the Task Force on Kaposi’s Sarcoma and Opportunistic
Infections) until 1995 (when it was known as the Division of HIV/AIDS); US
assistant surgeon-general, 1991-1995.
- Michael Kent Curtis
- Tom’s brother; a professor of law from Wake University who
wrote a lengthy paper about the legal implications of the OPV/AIDS
controversy and the suppression of dissent.
- Tom Curtis
- American journalist and author of Rolling Stone article entitled ‘The
Origin of AIDS’.
- Daniel D.
- Belgian construction worker who worked in central Africa in the
seventies and who died of AIDS-like conditions in 1981.
- Robert Daenens
- Belgian caretaker at Lindi camp in the late fifties.
- David Dane
- British virologist; George Dick’s deputy at Queen’s University, Belfast,
in the fifties and sixties.
- Professor William Darrow
- Sociologist and sole non-medical scientist in the CDC
Task Force on KSOI (later, division of HIV/AIDS).
- Dr Jack Davies
- British physician based in Uganda between 1940s and 1960s.
- Dr P. De Brauwere
- Inspector-general of hygiene in Brussels at the time of the
CHAT vaccinations in the Congo.
- Professor Kevin De Cock
- Belgian-born physician, epidemiologist and specialist in
- Professor Edward De Maeyer
- Virologist who joined the Rega Institute, Leuven, in 1957.
- Jean De Medina
- Headed the animal capture station at Epulu, eastern Congo;
formerly Camp Putnam.
- Professor Pieter De Somer
- Head of virology at Leuven University and Rega
Institute, Leuven from the 1950s onwards; co-founder of RIT
(Recherche et Industrie Thérapeutif).
- Brigadier Antonio De Spinola
- Portugese governor of Guinea-Bissau between 1968 and 1973.
- Professor Friedrich (‘Fritz’) Deinhardt
- Worked under the Henles at the virology department of the
Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) in the fifties; conducted
hepatitis studies at Lindi Camp in 1958.
- Professor Jean Deinhardt
- British virologist who joined the Wistar Institute in 1959
and who married Fritz Deinhardt soon afterwards.
- Dr Jean Delville
- Belgian virologist based at Elisabethville, Congo, in the
- Professor Jan Desmyter
- Head of virology, Rega Institute, Leuven, Belgium.
- Professor Ronald Desrosiers
- Harvard virologist based at the New England Primate
Research Center; member of the Wistar’s expert committee looking into the
OPV/AIDS theory and a leading proponent of using live vaccines against AIDS.
- Paulette Dherte
- Nurse and technical assistant at the Laboratoire MÃ©dical de
Stanleyville and Lindi camp in the fifties.
- George Dick
- British virologist who staged trials of Koprowski’s OPVs in Belfast,
Northern Ireland, in 1956.
- Pierre Doupagne
- Lab technician who worked at the Laboratoire Médical de
Stanleyville in the fifties.
- Dr Charles Dricot
- Chief physician of the Belgian Congo in 1957 when the CHAT
field trials began.
- Professor Peter Duesberg
- Molecular biologist and AIDS researcher who, for more
than ten years, championed theory that HIV does not cause AIDS.
- Gaetan Dugas
- Canadian air steward who became known as Patient Zero, in allusion
to the theory that he was the source (or key disseminator) of HIV in
- Professor Renato Dulbecco
- Italian virologist and Nobel Laureate who, in the fifties,
developed the techniques of trypsinisation and plaque purification.
- Blaine Elswood
- San Francisco AIDS activist and one of the developers of the theory
that Koprowski’s OPVs might have sparked the AIDS epidemic.
- Professor John Enders
- Microbiologist who developed tissue culture technique for
isolating and growing viruses.
- Professor Max Essex
- Harvard virologist and AIDS researcher who mistakenly
identified an SIV of African Green Monkeys, which was in fact
cross-contamination with a macaque SIV.
- Professor Paul Ewald
- Evolutionary biologist and author of ‘Evolution of Infectious
- Mrs Sadayo F.
- 60 year old Japanese-Canadian who died of typical AIDS-like
infections in Montreal in 1945.
- Agnes Flack
- Medical director of Clinton Farms, the women’s prison in New Jersey;
helped with the Ruzizi field-trial of CHAT in 1958.
- Professor Alan Fleming
- Hematologist and AIDS epidemiologist.
- Professor Tom Folks
- Head of retroviral research at the Centers for Disease Control.
- Dr Michel Forro
- Hungarian doctor who worked for Vicicongo, the construction and
haulage parastatal based at Aketi, Congo; officially oversaw the
first mass trial of Koprowski’s vaccines in 1957.
- Professor Cecil Fox
- American pathologist and tissue culture expert formerly with
the National Institutes of Health.
- Professor John Fox
- Virologist from Tulane University, New Orleans, who provided
poliovirus isolates which were used as the basis for several polio
vaccine strains, including Fox [poliovirus type 3] and P-712
[poliovirus type 2].
- Professor Thomas Francis
- Jonas Salk’s former teacher who helped organize the
first IPV trials in the US.
- Dr Alvin Friedman-Kein
- New York physician who recognised high incidence of
Kaposi’s Sarcoma in American gay men and co-authored first report on
KS in 1981.
- Dr Stig Froland
- Norwegian physician and AIDS specialist.
- Professor Patricia Fultz
- American virologist based at Birmingham, Alabama, who
reported on altered pathogenicity of SIVs after transfer into new
- Dick G.
- 28 year old engineer and former marine who died of AIDS-like
illnesses in Memphis, Tennessee in 1952.
- Professor Carleton Gajdusek
- Nobel Laureate for his work on the prion disease,
kuru. According to Preston Marx, Gajdusek may have played a crucial
role in the spread of Simian AIDS in American primate research centers.
- Professor Robert Gallo
- The first to isolate a human retrovirus, HTLV-I. He also
isolated HIV (after Montagnier and Levy) but called it HTLV-III,
thereby inaccurately implying that it was from the same family of
retroviruses as HTLV-I and HTLV-II. Friend of Hilary Koprowski.
- Feng Gao
- Virologist and PCR expert who provides sequences for Beatrice Hahn’s
team in Birmingham, Alabama.
- Professor Sven Gard
- Swedish virologist and developer of an improved IPV, used in
Sweden since the 1950s.
- Dr John Garrett
- Virologist at the National Institute for Biologic Standards and
Control, Potters Bar, U.K, who conducted experiments suggesting that
there was little risk of oral polio vaccines becoming contaminated
- Laurie Garrett
- Journalist and author of ‘The Coming Plague’.
- Professor Robert Garry
- Microbiologist from Tulane University, New Orleans, who
found HIV in autopsy samples from Robert R.
- Professor James Gear
- Senior virologist at the South African Institute for Medical
Research; developer of South African oral polio vaccine in African
green monkey tissues and long term associate of Hilary Koprowski.
- Professor Henry Gelfand
- Virologist from Tulane University, New Orleans, who
carried CHAT vaccine from Brussels to Leopoldville for the 1958
vaccination campaign in the latter city.
- Professor Paul Gigase
- Belgian physician who worked at Katana Hospital, eastern
Congo, in the fifties and who, in the eighties, carried out studies
of KS and AIDS in the same region.
- Professor Charles Gilks
- Parasitologist who proposed theory that the AIDS epidemic
originated from malaria research which involved injecting monkey and
ape blood into humans.
- Professor Sergio Giunta
- Italian virologist who proposed that AIDS could have
come about through the increased capture of African monkeys for
- Tom Gordon
- Associate director of Yerkes primate research center, Atlanta,
- Dr Michael Gottlieb
- Los Angeles doctor who, in June 1981, co-authored the first
report on AIDS to be published in the medical literature.
- Dr Sidney Gottlieb
- CIA scientist who headed a team which developed and tested
various experimental drugs and biological weapons in the fifties and
- Professor Jaap Goudsmit
- Dutch retrovirologist and author of ‘Viral Sex’ which
features a controversial account of the prehistory of AIDS.
- Dr Victor P. Grachev
- Helped with the mass poliovaccine campaign in the Soviet
Union in the 1950s; later worked for Biologicals department at the
- Sally Griffin
- Research and editorial assistant to the author, 1996-7.
- Mirko Grmek
- French medical historian and author of ‘History of AIDS’.
- Herbert H.
- German concert violinist and bisexual who died from what was almost
certainly AIDS in 1979.
- Professor Beatrice Hahn
- German-born microbiologist based at Birmingham, Alabama.
- Professor Bill Hamilton
- Oxford-based evolutionary biologist, Royal Society
research fellow, and sometimes considered the originator of
sociobiology; probably the most eminent supporter of the OPV/AIDS
- Professor Herwig Hamperl
- German microbiologist and specialist in Pneumocystis
carinii research in the fifties.
- Dr Jimmy Harries
- Kenyan-based physician who, in 1956, discussed possible
vaccination schemes in Africa with Hilary Koprowski.
- Professor Masanori Hayami
- Japanese virologist and head of SIV/HIV research
team at Kyoto University.
- Dr Leonard Hayflick
- Biologist who took charge of tissue culture development at the
Wistar Institute in 1958; developer of WI-38, a human diploid cell
- Congolese woman who died from AIDS-like infections in Kinshasa
- Professors Werner and Gertrude Henle
- Husband and wife team who ran the
virology department at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia
(CHOP) from 1939 until the nineties.
- Dr Fergal Hill
- Cambridge-based molecular biologist who collaborated with the
author, testing archival tissue and serum samples for presence of HIV.
- John Hillaby
- British author and scientific journalist who visited Lindi camp
- Professor Maurice (‘Max’) Hilleman
- American virologist,
co-discoverer of SV40 and developer of Heptavax B vaccine at Merck
Sharpe and Dohme.
- Professor Vanessa Hirsch
- American virologist based at the National Institute of
Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland.
- Professor David Ho
- Director of the Aaron Diamond Research Center and member of
the OPV/AIDS committee convened by the Wistar Institute.
- Professor Simon Wain Hobson
- British virologist based at the Pasteur Institute in Paris.
- David Huminer
- Israeli researcher who identified possible cases of pre-epidemic
AIDS from the medical literature.
- Professor Klaus Hummeler
- German virologist who worked at CHOP in the fifties
and collaborated with Koprowski on polio vaccine research.
- Dr Andrew Hunt
- Visiting physician at Clinton Farms during the fifties who
helped oversee several of the early Koprowski vaccine trials.
- Professor Constant ‘Stan’ Huygelen
- Took over from Pieter De Somer as director of RIT in the early
- Dr Drago Ikic
- Zagreb-based virologist who collaborated with Koprowski in
Croatian trials of polio vaccines made in monkey kidney and in WI-38.
- Edward Jenner
- Developer, in 1796, of the worlds’ first vaccine, effective against
- Dr Duncan Jeremiah
- Manchester physician and organiser of vaccination
campaigns who wrote to the British Medical Journal complaining about
Koprowski’s approach to vaccine trials.
- Professor George Jervis
- Director of laboratories at Letchworth Village, a center for
mentally handicapped children in New York state; helped at the
Ruzizi vaccine field trial in 1958.
- Alexandre Jezierski
- Polish émigré vet who worked in the Belgian Congo in the
forties and fifties and who developed his own sets of live and
killed human polio vaccines at his Gabu-Nioka laboratory.
- Professor Philip Johnson
- American virologist formerly based at the National
Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland.
- Yvon K.
- Belgian man who did voluntary work in the Congo in the seventies and who
later died of AIDS.
- Professor Phyllis Kanki
- Harvard virologist and colleague of Max Essex.
- Dr Moriz Kaposi
- Hungarian dermatologist who practised in Vienna in the
nineteenth century; identified several new skin conditions including
the sarcoma named after him.
- Anicet Kashamura
- Congolese sociologist, writer and politician; author of ‘Famille,
Sexualité et Culture’.
- Dr Abraham Karpas
- Cambridge-based virologist and proponent of the theory that
the AIDS epidemic began with monkey-related sexual practices in
central Africa; also proposed an amplification role for reusable
needles in the advent of the epidemic.
- Dr Olen Kew
- Polio expert and director of molecular virology at the Division of
Virological Diseases, CDC.
- Leonard Kopf
- The first patient to be diagnosed with Kaposi’s Sarcoma, 1867.
- Dr Irena Koprowska
- Married Hilary Koprowski in Poland in 1938 and in 1997
wrote a revealing autobiography entitled ‘A Woman Wanders through
Life and Science’.
- Professor Hilary Koprowski
- Virologist and developer of a set of oral polio vaccines;
the first to feed oral polio vaccine to humans in 1950.
- Adriaan Kortlandt
- Dutch primatologist who visited the Laboratoire Médical de
Stanleyville in 1960.
- Daniel Koshland
- Editor of Science magazine, who declined to publish Bill
Hamilton’s submission on the OPV/AIDS controversy.
- Professor David Kritchevsky
- Biochemist who worked at Lederle Laboratories and
later followed Hilary Koprowski to the Wistar Institute.
- Professor Kamil Kucera
- Czech parasitologist; specialist in Pneumocystis carinii
- Walter Kyle
- New Hampshire attorney who propounded theory that AIDS epidemic
originated from Sabin’s OPV, taken topically as an anti-herpes
- Senhor Jose L.
- The first known sufferer from HIV-II related AIDS, believed to have
been exposed in Guinea-Bissau by 1966.
- Dr Georges Lambelin
- Jezierski’s deputy at Lambelin at Gabu Nioka in the 1950s.
- Dr Monique Lamy
- Virologist at the Rega Institute, Leuven; later put in charge of
vaccine production at RIT in the late fifties.
- Dr Linda Laubenstein
- Physician and colleague of Friedman-Kein at New York
University Medical Center.
- Professor Bernard Le Guenno
- Formerly virologist based at the Pasteur Institute,
Dachau,Senegal; now head of research into hemorrhagic fevers at the
Pasteur in Paris.
- Professor André Lebrun
- In the late fifties, director of the Marcel Wanson Institute
of Hygiene, Leopoldville, and effective head of hygiene for the
Congo; helped coordinate the vaccination campaign in Leo,
- Professor Gerasmos (‘Mike’) Lecatsas
- Chief virologist at the Medical University of
Southern Africa (MEDUNSA), Pretoria, and proponent of the OPV/AIDS
- Professor Jacques Leibowitch
- French physician, raconteur and writer on AIDS.
- Professor Edwin Lennette
- Virologist who worked with Koprowski at the Yellow
Fever Research Service in Rio during the Second World War; later
tested various biological agents for the US army Chemical Corps.
- Dr John Leonard
- Senior registrar at the Manchester Royal Infirmary when David
Carr was a patient in 1959.
- Professor Pierre Lépine
- Head of virology at the Institut Pasteur in Paris from 1941
for several decades; developer of an inactivated polio vaccine
administered in many Francophone countries.
- Professor Jay Levy
- San Francisco virologist who identified retrovirus ARV (later
called HIV) shortly after Luc Montaigner
- Gilbert M.
- Belgian mine official who worked in the Congo, and who died of
AIDS-like diseases in 1977.
- John Maddox
- Former editor of Nature magazine who declined to publish Bill
Hamilton’s submission on the OPV/AIDS controversy.
- Edna Mahan
- Governor of the women’s prison at Clinton Farms for forty years,
including the period of the Koprowski vaccine trials.
- Dr Brian Mahy
- British virologist, director of the CDC’s division of viral and
- Professor Jonathan Mann
- American physician; head of Projêt SIDA in Kinshasa in
the early eighties and head of the WHO’s Global Program on AIDS from
1986 to 1990. Killed in plane crash in 1998.
- Rwanda-born HIV-infected wife of Daniel D.
- Professor Brian Martin
- Sociologist of science who heads Science and Technology
Studies at the University of Wollongong, Australia; publisher of
Louis Pascal’s paper: “What Happens When Science Goes Bad?”
- Professor Preston Marx
- American primatologist and expert in HIV/SIV research;
frequent visitor to West Africa; representative of the Aaron Diamond
AIDS research Center at LEMSIP (the Laboratory for Experimental
Medicine and Surgery In Primates).
- Professor Joseph Melnick
- Dean emeritus of Baylor college, Houston; respected
commentator on polio vaccines for several decades.
- Professor Karl Meyer
- Swiss born doctor who headed the George Williams Hooper
Foundation, a San Francisco-based research institute, from the
forties onwards; helped set up vaccine trials for Koprowski in California.
- Dr Hector Meyus
- Director of the hygiene service of Ruanda-Urundi at the time of
the Ruzizi vaccinations in 1958.
- Dr Jean-Louis Michaux
- Jean Sonnet’s assistant at Lovanium University Hospital,
Leopoldville, in the fifties and sixties.
- Professor Philip Minor
- Principal virologist at the National Institute for Biologic
Standards and Control, Potters Bar, U.K, in the nineties.
- Professor Luc Montaigner
- Virologist from the Pasteur Institute, generally
considered to be the first person to identify HIV (then known as
LAV) as the cause of AIDS.
- Dr James Moore
- Member of the National Institute for Drug Abuse, Lexington
Kentucky, who arranged for retrospective HIV testing of stored sera
from drug addicts taken in 1971 and 1972.
- Professor Joseph Mortelmans
- Primatologist and chimpanzee expert; worked in
Stanleyville as a vet in 1956.
- Dr Jacques Morvan
- Researcher from Laboratory of Clinical Biology at the army
medical school in Bordeaux, France.
- Professor Arno Motulsky
- American geneticist from the University of Washington,
Seattle, who collected blood samples in the Belgian Congo and
Ruanda-Urundi in 1959.
- Professor Kary Mullis
- Inventor of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique
for molecular analysis.
- Dr Gerry Myers
- Director of the HIV Sequence Database, Los Alamos, New Mexico,
which produces HIV/SIV sequences and phylogenetic trees.
- Professor André Nahmias
- Professor from Emory University, Atlanta, who
retrospectively tested African blood samples and found L70, the HIV
positive sample from Leopoldville, taken in 1959.
- Dr Anders Naucler
- Swedish doctor based in Guinea-Bissau who wrote PhD thesis
- Dr Tom Nelson
- Superintendent of Sonoma, a Californian center for handicapped
children, in the fifties; collaborated with Koprowski in testing
OPVs in child patients.
- Dr Gaston Ninane
- Belgian virologist who worked under Ghislain Courtois at
Stanleyville in the fifties; helped vaccinate in the Ruzizi valley
and Province Oriental.
- Arvid Noe
- Norwegian sailor (between 1961 and 1965) and one of the earliest
confirmed AIDS fatalities, in 1976.
- Thomas Norton
- Chief laboratory technician under Koprowski at Lederle
Laboratories until 1957; later on, assistant director at Wistar
- Louis O.
- Belgian cartographer who worked in the Congo until 1968 and who
died of AIDS in 1988.
- Basil O’Connor
- Lawyer and friend of Franklin D. Roosevelt, headed the National
Fund for Infantile Paralysis and launched the ‘March of Dimes’,
which raised public funds for polio research.
- Dr James Oleske
- Newark-based pediatrician who cared for some of the first AIDS
sufferers in North America, including a girl who was probably
infected in 1973 or 1974.
- Dr Paul Osterrieth
- Belgian physician and virologist who worked at the Laboratoire
Médical de Stanleyville between 1957 and 1960.
- Professor Joseph Pagano
- Trained at the CDC Epidemiology Intelligence Service
(EIS) and who followed Stanley Plotkin to the Wistar Institute,
where he organized several polio vaccine trials.
- Louis Pascal
- Philosopher and arm-chair researcher; founding father of OPV/AIDS
- Professor Louis Pasteur
- French veterinary scientist, developer of first vaccine
against rabies and in whose honour the Pasteur Institutes found in
Francophone countries around the world are named.
- Dr Stéphane Pattyn
- Worked at Laboratoire Médical d’Elisabethville under Jean
Delville in the fifties and staged polio antibody studies around the
Belgian Congo; now an eminent virologist at the Tropical Institute
- Julian Peetermans
- Joined RIT at its inception in 1956 and effectively headed
vaccine production there until the nineties.
- Dr Martine Peeters
- Virologist at the Institute of Tropical Medicine in Antwerp,
Belgium; specialist in research on SIV-positive chimpanzees.
- Robert and Joan Phillips
- Husband-and-wife photographer and journalist team who
reported on the Ruzizi vaccinations in March 1958.
- Dr Tony Pinching
- London-based immunologist and AIDS researcher.
- Professor Peter Piot
- Aids researcher and latterly head of UNAIDS, the United
Nations AIDS program.
- Professor Stanley Plotkin
- Koprowski’s former associate at the Wistar Institute and,
in the nineties, managing director of Pasteur Merieux, the
- Dr Anne-Grethe Poulsen
- Danish specialist in HIV-2 research who worked with
Peter Aaby in Guinea-Bissau.
- Dr Edmund Preston
- Quaker physician from Moorestown, New Jersey, who helped
organise the first small-scale US trial of Koprowski vaccines in the
- Professor Abel Prinzie
- Belgian virologist who worked at the Rega Institute from
1954 and later, in the sixties, at RIT.
- Professor F. (“Smithy”) Przesmycki
- Head of virology at the state institute of
hygiene, Warsaw, who collaborated on the Polish trials of CHAT and
- Robert R.
- St Louis teenager who died from an AIDS-like condition in 1969.
- Dr Grethe Rask
- Danish surgeon who worked in the Congo and who died of typical
AIDS infections in 1977.
- Dr Herbert Ratner
- Chicago physician who proposed theory that Salk’s IPV,
contaminated with SV40, was the source of the human AIDS epidemic.
- Dr Robert Redfield
- Aids researcher based at the Walter Reed Army Medical Center.
- Dr Tom Rivers
- Rockefeller Institute virologist and arbiter of polio vaccination
policy in the forties and fifties.
- Dr Manuel Roca-Garcia
- Lederle virologist under Herald Cox.
- Gilbert Rollais
- French hunter who captured chimpanzees for Lindi camp.
- Professor Robert Root-Bernstein
- Author of ‘Rethinking AIDS’, which proposes a multi-factorial
theory of origin.
- Dr Giovanni Rovera
- Director of the Wistar Institute after Koprowski’s departure in
- Professor Ruth Ruprecht
- Harvard virologist who strongly challenges the safety of
the live AIDS vaccine proposed by Ronald Desrosiers.
- Alice S.
- 22-year-old secretary who died of Pneumocystis carinii in 1964 in Pulman,
- Professor Albert Sabin
- Virologist who developed a set of oral polio vaccines which,
since 1961, have been adopted around the world.
- Dr Carl-Rune Salenstedt
- Director of vaccine production at the National
Bacteriological Laboratories, Stockholm, Sweden.
- Professor Jonas Salk
- Virologist who developed an inactivated polio vaccine which
was administered to millions in Britain and America, before being
superseded by Sabin’s oral vaccine.
- Dr Kingsley Sanders
- British tissue culture specialist who worked for the Medical
Research Council in the fifties and sixties and who investigated the
suitability of African monkey kidneys for polio vaccine preparation.
- Professor Carl Saxinger
- Conducted AIDS research under Robert Gallo at the
National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, in the eighties.
- Professor Meinrad Schar
- Chief of sera and vaccines at the Swiss Public Health
Department; helped organize trials of several OPVs and IPVs in the
fifties and sixties.
- Dr Barry Schoub
- Senior virologist at National Institute of Virology, South Africa.
- Dr Gordon Scott
- British vet, formerly based at Muguga, Kenya, who visited
Jezierski at Gabu-Nioka in 1954.
- John Seale
- British venereologist who proposed theories that AIDS epidemic might
have originated through Cold War biological weapons research or
through inceased availability of reusable needles and syringes in
- Dr Jacob and Lilli Segal
- East German husband-and-wife team who proposed theory
that American biological weapons research sparked AIDS epidemic.
- Professor Paul Sharp
- British molecular biologist who has written extensively on
HIV and SIV.
- Randy Shilts
- San Francisco-based journalist and author of And The Band Played On.
Died of early AIDS in the early nineties.
- Dr Joseph Smadel
- Chief of viral and rickettsial research at the Walter Reed Army
Medical Center in the fifties; later the associate director of the
US Public Health Service.
- Professor Smorodintsev
- Soviet virologist who participated in the testing of the
Sabin vaccine strains in the USSR.
- Eva Lee Snead
- San Antonio physician, debarred, who wrote Some Call It “AIDS” –
I Call It Murder!, which proposes that AIDS came from
- Dr John Snow
- Medic whose pioneering epidemiological investigation into the
London cholera outbreak of 1854 led to the cessation of the epidemic.
- Professor Jean Sonnet
- Belgian physician based at Lovanium University Hospital,
Leopoldville/Kinshasa, in fifties and sixties; pioneering AIDS
researcher until his death in 1992.
- Dr Fred Stare
- Nutrition expert from Harvard University who received chimpanzees
from Lindi camp.
- Dr Tom Starzl
- Controversial scientist from University of Pittsburgh and leading
proponent of xenotransplantation – in this case, transplanting
baboon livers into humans.
- Professor Ernest Sternglass
- American physicist who proposed theory that low-level
radiation exposure was the principal causative factor behind the
- Dr Jan Stijns
- Director of the medical laboratory at the Tropical Institute in
Leopoldville who may have been responsible for collecting L70, the
first HIV positive blood sample, in 1959.
- Professor Joseph Stokes Jr
- Quaker who headed pediatric department of Children’s
Hospital of Philadelphia in the fifties; collaborated on Koprowski’s
polio vaccine trials. Later appointed director of CHOP.
- Robert and Theodore Strecker
- Right-wing American AIDS activists who proposed
that the Soviets and the WHO had produced the AIDS virus as a
- Dr Trevor Stretton
- Senior house officer at the Manchester Royal Infirmary in the
fifties; tended to David Carr.
- Dr Raphael Stricker
- San Francisco immunologist who co-wrote articles on
OPV/AIDS with Blaine Elswood.
- Dr Wolf Szmuness
- Polish émigré virologist who pioneered studies of the hepatitis B
vaccine, Heptavax-B, in the US and elsewhere in the late seventies
and early eighties.
- Professor Max Theiler
- Rockefeller Institute virologist and developer of live vaccine
against yellow fever.
- Professor Lise Thiry (formerly Quersin-Thiry)
- Head of virology at the Institut Pasteur satellite in Brussels;
also taught at the Université Libre de Bruxelles. Later a socialist
- Dr Geoffrey Timms
- Physician in charge of vaccine procurement in Kenya at the
time of Koprowski’s visit in 1957.
- Dr Mike Tristem
- British molecular biologist, former student of Fergal Hill; now
head of the virology labs at Imperial College, Ascot.
- Dr Phillipe Van De Perre
- Belgian AIDS specialist based in Kigali, Rwanda.
- Dr Rachel Van Der Meeren (neé Yeld)
- British researcher who monitored Tutsi refugees in Tanzania in
the early sixties.
- Professor Jozef Vandepitte
- Chair of microbiology at the University of Lovanium in
the Belgian Congo in 1959, when he helped Arno Motulsky collect
blood samples. Temporarily headed the Laboratoire Médical de
Stanleyville in 1958.
- Professor Michel Vandeputte
- Established the first virology laboratory in
Leopoldville in 1956 and moved to the Rega Institute, Leuven in
- Dr Bernard Vandercam
- Belgian AIDS physician who took over from Dr Jean
Sonnet at St Luc Hospital, Brussels, in 1992.
- Dr Boris Velimirovic
- Former WHO official who worked in the Congo in the early
- Major-General Jack ‘Black Mamba’ Walden
- Former Brigadier of the Tanzanian People’s Defence Forces who
played a major role in the invasion of Uganda in 1978-1979.
- Professor Caroline Weekes-Levy
- Head of viral vaccine research at Lederle
Laboratories, American Cyanamid.
- Dr Karl F. Wefring
- Norwegian pediatrician who helped care for Arvid Noe’s
- Professor Robin Weiss
- British virologist and AIDS researcher.
- Professor Hans Wigzell
- Head of the National Bacteriological Laboratory, Stockholm
and, latterly, Rector of the Karolinska Institute. Co-chair of
consultative group on live AIDS vaccines for the WHO.
- Dr Tadeusz J. Wiktor
- Polish-born vet who served in the Congo in the fifties and
met Hilary Koprowski in Kenya in 1955. Joined the Wistar Institute
in the sixties, to work on rabies research.
- Professor George Williams
- Pathologist who conducted autopsy on David Carr and
who provided tissue samples from that autopsy which tested
HIV-positive by PCR.
- John Rowan Wilson
- Author of Margin of Safety, a history of polio vaccines publishe
- Helen Winternitz
- American author of East Along The Equator – A Congo Journey.
- Dr Zofia Wroblewska
- Polish researcher at the Wistar Institute.
- Dr John Wyatt
- St Louis pathologist who identified CMV in tissues of Dick G.
- George Y.
- Japanese-Canadian who died of PCP infection at Toronto General
Hospital in 1959.
- Veronique Y.
- Congolese woman, wife of Louis O., who left the Congo in 1968 and
died of AIDS in 1987.
- Dr Daniel Zagury
- French doctor based in Kinshasa, Congo, who injected himself
and other volunteers with an experimental AIDS vaccine in the